Lesson 5: Gender and plural in Polish language

GENDER OF POLISH NOUNS

There are three genders in Polish language: masculine, feminine, neuter.

Masculine nouns usually end in consonants:

Dom – house/home, Samochód – car, Pociąg – train, Kot – cat, Pokój – room, Awtobus – bus

Feminine nouns usually end in –A or –Ć:

Piosenka – song, Butelka – bottle, Szklanka – glass(for water), Droga – road, Książka – book, Wódka – vodka, Miłość – love

Neuter nouns usually end in –O or -E:

Piwo – beer, Miasto – city, Szkło – glass, Okno – window, Oko –eye, Dziecko – child, Miejsce – place

PLURAL OF NOUNS

Polish plural has more than one rule, and more than two. Let’s learn to make plural form of Polish nouns:

Masculine nouns ending in -ł, -m, -r, -b, -d, -t, -p, -w, -z, -ch, -s, g, k will have plural ending –i/y. Also memorize for this rule: use -DZI instead of –DI, -CI instead of –TI, -CI instead of –ĆI, -SI instead of –CHI., Ź instead of Z.

Pociąg – Pociągi – trains

Książka – Książki – books

Samochód – Samochody – cars

Rower – Rowery – bicycles

Telefon – Telefony – telephones

Masculine nouns ending in soft consonants like -Ć, -C, -CZ, -DŹ, -DŻ, -Ś, -SZ ,-Ń, -RZ, -Ż, -L, -J. will have plural ending –E (-IE).

Pokój – Pokoje – rooms (notice that ó beomes o in plural)

Przyjaciel – Przyjaciele – friends

Gość – Gośćie

Kraj – Kraje – lands

Feminine nouns ending in –A have plural ending –Y/I.

Strona – Strony – sides

Droga – Drogi – roads

Rakieta – Rakiety – rockets

Kobieta – Kobiety – women

Wioska – wioski – villages

Neuter nouns ending in –O have plural endings –A.

Okno – Okna – windows

Miasto – Miasta – cities

GENDER OF POLISH ADJECTIVES

Unlike nouns, one Polish adjective can belong to each gender.

Masculine adjectives have the engings –Y/I.

Biały – white, Piękny – beautiful, Nudny – boring, Wysoki – tall/high, Ciemny – dark, Świetlny – light

Feminine adjectives have the  ending –A/IA;

Białawhite, Piękna – beautiful, Nudna – boring, Wysoka – tall/high, Ciemna – dark, Świetlna- light

Neuter adjectives have the endings –E/IE.

Białe – white, Piękne – beautiful, Nudne – boring, Wysokie – tall/high, Ciemne – dark, Świetlne – light

PLURAL OF POLISH ADJECTIVES

Plural form of Polish masculine adjectives has the endings –I/Y;

Białi – white, Piękni – beautiful, Nudni – boring, Wysoky – tall/high, Ciemni – dark, Świetlni – light

As you can see, singular –I becomes plural –y, as well as singular –y becomes plural –i.

And plural form of Polish feminine and neuter adjectives have the endings –E/IE.

Białe – white, Piękne – beautiful, Nudne – boring, Wysokie – tall/high, Ciemne – dark, Świetlne- light

Examples

Noce w Petersburgu są świetlne – nights in Petersburg are light (noc – night)

Polskie kobiety są bardzo piękne – Polish women are very beautiful (kobieta – women, bardzo – very)

Gdzie są tanie sklepy? – Where are the cheap stores? (tani – cheap, sklep – shop)

Czemu jesteśmy zajęci zawsze? – Why are we busy always? (zajęty – busy, zawsze – always)

Kto jest gotowy? – Who is ready? (gotowy – ready)

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