In this lesson, we will consider two aspects of Serbian verbs and Serbian reflexive verbs. This subject is very important because this is the very base of the language.
In the previous lessons on the Serbian language, we considered verbs without their aspect. This time is to consider what is the difference between imperfective verbs and perfective ones. I will try to give the simplest explanation of their difference.
Imperfective verbs describe a process of an action
Perfective verbs describe a result of an action
Imperfective and perfective verbs differ either by different endings or by prefixes. It is almost impossible to determine how a perfective/imperfective verb looks like not knowing one of its forms, so here is the recommendation: learn new verbs, learning their imperfective and perfective form at the same time.
Also, the perfective form is used only in the past and future tense.
Let’s consider some verbs:
|Imperfective form||Perfective form|
|Paliti||Spaliti||To set on fire|
And let’s consider some sentences with explanations:
Šta oni su uradili juče? – What have they done yesterday? (juče – yesterday). Uraditi – to do, perfective form is used, because it describes the result of the action “to do”.
Šta oni su radili juče? – What did they do yesterday? Raditi – to do, the imperfective form used, because it describes the process of the action “to do”.
Ćeš kupiti nešto u prodavnici? – Will you buy something in the store? Kupiti – to buy, perfective form is used, because it describes the result of the action “to buy”.
Ćeš kupovati nešto u prodavnici? – Will you buy something in the store? Kupovati – to buy, imperfective form is used, in this sentence, it describes the process of the action “to buy”.
Ja sačuvao sam ovaj fajl – I have saved this file. Sačuvati – to save, perfective form is used because it describes the result.
There are no reflexive verbs in English, but if your native language has them – it must be easy for you. The sense of reflexive verbs is that a performer and receiver of an action are the same: one performs an action on oneself. For example “I wash myself”, “He prepares himself” and so on.
Serbian reflexive verbs can be perfective and imperfective as well, the only difference is the particle “se” after the infinitive form:
Vratiti – to return/to come back
Vratiti se – to return oneself
Čistiti – to clean
Čistiti se – to clean oneself
Zvati* – to call
Zvati se* – to call oneself
And this particle “se” in sentences with verbs not in infinitive form is placed before the verb:
Ja se zovem – My name is (literally: I call myself)
*-Zvati – irregular verb, stem in present tense ZOV-
Ona se zove Mara – Her name is Mara (literally: She calls herself Mara)
Ja sam se probudio u šest sati – I woke up at 6 o’clock
Žašto se žališ? – Why do you complain?
Ću da se tuširam sada – I will take a shower now
Nadam se da oni neće smetati nama – I hope that they won’t disturb us)
Kada se vraćate kući? – When you come back home?
Moja sestra će se venčati sa mojim prijateljem – My sister will get married with my friend
Ko je stvorio ovu sistemu? – Who created this system?
Slikar je nacrtao lepu sliku – The artist has drawn a beautiful picture
Ja sam kupio mnogo hrane u prodavnici – I have bought much food in the store
Vešmašina će da se pokvari uskoro – The washing machine will get broken soon
|žaliti se – to complain|
probuditi se – to wake up
nadati se – to hope
venčati se – to get married
tuširati se(imp.)/istuširati se(perf) – to take a shower
stvarati(imp.)/stvoriti(perft.) – to create
smetati – to disturb
crtati(imp.)/nacrtati(perf.) – to draw
kupiti(imp.)/kupovati(perf.) – to buy
pokvariti se – to get broken
šest – six
kuća – home
prodavnica – store
hrana – food
Decide whether you have to use imperfective or perfective form and conjugate it appropriately
- Jabuka ______________ sa drva (PADATI(imp.)/PASTI(perf.) – to fall) – An apple has fallen from the free
- Kada _______________ da sviraš gitaru? (početi/započeti – to start) – When did you start to play guitar?
- Koliko novca ćeš da _____________________ za one kursevi? (TROŠITI/POTROŠITI – to spend) – How much money will you spend on those courses?
- Nikada __________________________ za reklamu mog proizvoda (PLATITI/ZAPLATITI – to pay) – I never paid for advertisement of my product
- Možda _________________ novi film večeras? (GLEDATI/POGLEDATI – to watch) – Maybe we will watch the new film tonight?
Use appropriate form of reflexive verbs
- Ova reć __ne __________ tako kao _________________ – (ČITATI SE – to read oneself, PISATI SE– to write oneself) – This word is read not so as it is written
- Knige _________________ u tipografijama (ŠTAMPATI SE – to print oneself) – Books are printed in typographies
- Zašto ova vrata se___ ne _________ (ZATVARATI SE – to close oneself) – Why this door doesn’t get closed?
- Kako to ___________________ na Ruskom jeziku? (KAZATI SE – to be said) – How is it said in the Russian language?
- Viktor ___________________ brzo (OBUĆITI SE – to get dressed) – Viktor gets dressed quickly
- Mi smo odlučili da _______________(VENČATI SE – to get married) – We have decided to get married
1: je pala; 2: započeo si; 3: potrošiš; 4: nisam platio; 5: pogledaćemo; 6: se, čita, se piše, 7: se štampaju; 8: se, zatvaraju; 9: se kaže; 10: se obući, 11: se venčamo